I remember when I started my first job, I had to go through the new-guy day 1 setup fish bowl. You know, where the other developers say, “whoa-ho-ho, you’re going to have a fun first week,” and then proceed to take bets on how long it will take you to set up your own local test environment. First step, install your database system, create your database, and provision users. Then, it’s installing all the prerequisite libraries: Apache, PHP, Python, etc. Then, clone your repository, and edit all your configuration files to point instances of your local code. Edit all your configuration files to use the right database, and pray that it works. Of course, it doesn’t ever work on your first try, and you have to go ask the guy next to you to stop what he’s doing and come over to help you out. This could take anywhere from 3 days to two weeks.
Then, we had virtual machines. Someone builds a virtual image with all the libraries you need and the database pre-installed, and you could just get it up and running. It was nicer to get you started up with, but it ate up all your system resources. It’s also a huge thing to download on day one, so you usually get it via sneaker-net, which the IT department frowns upon. Also, syncing your code for testing quick fixes is non-trivial. You have to either copy it on to the system or work out some sort of hypervisor-specific shared mount.
A co-worker of mine suggested that we run the development environment in its own chroot jail. It allows you to run the application server on a production like userland environment (as opposed to your native laptop experience) like you would on a virtual machine, but without having the overhead of running a whole different operating system. It works well once you get it up and running, but getting it up and running is the difficult part. The base filesystem can be distributed as a tarball, but the bootstrap script would need to be tailored to your specific Linux distribution for bind mounts. Oh, and your host operating system MUST be Linux.
Docker containers operate much like a chroot jail, where your images are your userland filesystems, and you don’t need special scripts to bootstrap the container; it’s all built in to the engine. On top of that, it’s even paired up with its own virtual network stack, so it behaves like its own virtual machine. To test quick fixes, your code is mounted on a volume handled by the Docker engine. Also, to test multiple services interacting with each other, the containers can be put onto the same virtual network bridge.
The best part? You can then take these Docker containers and ship them off to your production deployment.
Now go download it and play around with it.